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Adoption of Socially Responsible Investment Practices in the Chinese Investment Sector: A Cost-Benefit Approach

  • Svenja Stropahl
  • Niklas Keller
In 2003, ten of the world’s largest private banks, in cooperation with the International Finance Corporation, voluntarily committed themselves to adopting social and environmental investment-standards. Since then, 54 institutions from 21 states, active in over a 100 countries have adopted these...

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Uzbekistan: An Important Regional and International Actor

  • Nigorakhon Turakhanova
As an Uzbek national I often encounter questions regarding the current situation, and regional and international significance of Uzbekistan. Precious little information and knowledge is readily available, and many people seem to confuse other regional conflicts, for example in Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan...

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History under the Threat of Politics

  • David Erkomaishvili
There is a church in the centre of Prague, near Karlovo Namesti. One who is unfamiliar with its history may simply pass it by. As many buildings in Prague, it is charming; retaining its own history and specificity. Nevertheless, there is a unique story attached to this particular church. On the south...

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The Peace Process in Northern Ireland: A Real Breakthrough?

  • Michal Mravinac
Although ‘friendship’ was not on offer, March 26th 2007 witnessed a historical moment when leaders of the two main parties representing rival factions of society in Northern Ireland sat down at the same table. Who would ever have imagined Ian Paisley, a hawkish protestant cleric heading the...

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US Missile Defence in Central Europe: A Comment

  • Petr Kucera
Three different missile defence systems are currently operational or under construction within the European theatre. These are: 1) NATO Missile Defence, 2) NATO Layered Theatre Ballistic Missile Defence and, 3) an American Missile Defence initiative (achieved bilaterally). Recently, the American system...

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Small Scale Successes and Hope in the Horn of Africa

  • David Rabinowitz
In November 2006, I traveled to Ethiopia to join an international medical mission organized by ‘Operation Smile;’ a twenty-five year old, non-profit organization, based in Norfolk, Virginia, which provides free cleft palette and cleft lip surgery to the economically disadvantaged worldwide....

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Towards Supranational Governance in EU Counter-Terrorism? – The Role of the Commission and the Council Secretariat

  • Christian Kaunert
Since the events of 11 September 2001 (9/11), it has been argued by some scholars that security has become the dominant force in the European Union’s Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (AFSJ). As a result, there has been an active debate on the ‘securitization’ of the new threats, such as refugees...

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The Use and Effectiveness of Migration Controls as a Counter-Terrorism Instrument in the European Union

  • Sarah Leonard
Since the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001, the issue of the linkages between security concerns, in particular terrorism, and asylum and migration policies in the European Union (EU) has received an increasing amount of scholarly attention (see Guild, 2003a; Guild, 2003b; Baldaccini and Guild,...

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Perceptions of the Terrorist Threat among EU Member States

  • Oldrich Bures
The European Union’s (EU) efforts in the fight against terrorism have already been analysed in a number of scholarly articles and edited volumes. While differing substantially in their scope, depth and focus, most analyses have identified important gaps and shortcomings of the nascent EU Counterterrorism...

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Bringing Effectiveness into the Debate: A Guideline to Evaluating the Success of EU Targeted Sanctions

  • Francesco Giumelli
The relevance of international sanctions has increased since the end of the Cold War as states and international organisations have resorted to this foreign policy tool more frequently than in the past. The European Union (EU) has contributed to this trend by using sanctions in more than twenty different...

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Assessing the Effectiveness of EU Sanctions Policy

  • Radka Drulakova
  • Jan Martin Rolenc
  • Zuzana Travnickova
  • Stepanka Zemanova
While the European Communities (ECs) has applied autonomous sanctions for many years, their character has significantly changed since the 1990s. Such changes may be the result of the transformation of the ECs into the European Union (EU), and to the creation of its second pillar; the Common Foreign and...

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Western Values and Strategic Interests? Evaluating Potential Georgian Membership in NATO

  • Stephen Herzog
Since the Russian-Georgian conflict in August 2008, the Republic of Georgia’s potential membership in NATO has been a hotly contested issue. Unfortunately, the arguments on both sides of the debate often rely on catchphrases such as “vibrant democracy” and “corrupt authoritarianism” without referencing...

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Moving Together Toward an Uncertain Future: US-European Counterterrorism Vision, Responses & Cooperation Post-9/11

  • Bryan Groves
The lead-up to the Iraq War, and its conduct, highlighted significant differences in transatlantic perspectives, capabilities, and methods. While terrorism has generally been America’s central fixation since 9/11 (until the recent economic recession), Europe sees terrorism as only one of several important...

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Europe and the United States in the “Asian” 21st Century: The Political, Economic and Security Context

  • Milos Balaban
While, at the western end of Eurasia, most European states are taking part in a great experiment; broadening and deepening their political, economic and security integration within the EU, at the eastern end of Eurasia, an experiment of no less importance is underway. China, the world’s most populous...

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What We Talk About When We Talk About Democracy Assistance: The Problem of Definition in Post-Conflict Approaches

  • Richard Lappin
Since the early 1990s, one of the most striking characteristics to emerge in post-conflict peacebuilding has been the prime position assumed by democratisation; an approach we can term post-conflict democracy assistance. This focus has hinged on an unerring belief that democratic governance, provided...

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Questioning the Dominance of Military Means: The Bush Administration’s Fight against Terrorism

  • Jan Ludvik
This work is devoted to investigating the variety of approaches that the US presidential administration of George W. Bush deployed to counter terrorism following 9/11. This topic deserves special attention because Bush’s approach to fighting terrorism is often misconceived as primarily or even only,...

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Evaluating Sub-State Participation in the History of International Health Co-operation

  • Nikita Chiu
The Treaty of Westphalia is often referred to as the point of departure in the history of international relations. It was in 1648 that the modern state system was established and the concept of national sovereignty born. Today, these two concepts remain essential elements that govern interstate relations....

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Understanding Suicide Terrorism: Problem-Solving Approach to Suicide Terrorism

  • Tanya Narozhna
  • W. Andy Knight
Over the past few years, the problem of suicide terrorism has garnered significant scholarly interest. Recent literature on suicide terrorism eschews earlier claims about the profound irrationality or psychopathology of attackers and focuses instead on the strategic dimension of this phenomenon, introducing...

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Talking about Unlawful Combatants? A Short and Concise Assessment of a Long and Multifaceted Debate

  • Veronika Bilkova
In the memorandum of February 7, 2002, (former) US president George W. Bush qualified the members of the Taliban movement arrested in Afghanistan and detained at the US military base of Guantánamo Bay as "unlawful combatants". In the following months, the scope of this term was broadened to include,...

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Medvedev's Initiative: A Trap for Europe?

  • Yury Fedorov
The informal meeting of OSCE foreign ministers (Corfu, June 27-28, 2009) launched the so-called ‘Corfu Process'. Greek Foreign Minister, Theodora Bakoyannis, summarizing the meeting's discussions noted that the process should be an open, sustained, wide-ranging and inclusive dialogue on security [with...

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Governing Internal Security in the European Union

  • Artur Gruszczak
The Maastricht treaty on the European Union (EU) erected a three-pillar edifice of European integration whose third pillar comprised various forms of cooperation in justice and home affairs. Many practices had existed much before 1992 and their inclusion into the new organization was a kind of cosmetic...

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Missing Development Opportunities on the EU's Southern Border

  • Jose Maria Lopez-Bueno
According to Kennan's long telegram, permanent peaceful coexistence between the democratic ‘West' and the communist ‘East,' (led by the Soviet Union), was next to impossible (Kennan, 1946). However, similar to Soviet ‘official statements,' Kennan's assumptions were thinly veiled propaganda, meant for...

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Continuity and Change in the US Foreign and Security Policy with the Accession of President Obama

  • Nik Hynek
The question of continuity and change in the US Foreign/Security Policy (henceforth USFSP) after the accession of President Obama can be constructively studied from two complementary perspectives: the thematic perspective and the procedural perspective. This method determines the structure of this analysis....

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State Failure and Security in a Post-Westphalia Era

  • Natalia Piskunova
A current trend in International Relations (IR) suggests that challenges to the international system are of a post-Westphalia character. These new challenges are caused by the gradual decline of the state as the only authoritative player on the international relations and security chessboard. A shift...

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Multilateral Development Bank Accountability Mechanisms: Developments and Challenges

  • Richard E. Bissell
  • Suresh Nanwani
Prior to 1993, the multilateral development banks (MDBs) could be held to account for their actions only by their shareholders - governments in all cases that provided working capital for the banks for their lending and development purposes. It was thus a fundamental change in the system of international...

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Transnational Organized Crime in International Relations

  • Yuliya Zabyelina
Although it has never been central to IR theories, transnational organized crime (TOC) is inherently an international phenomenon that has an impact on international security, world politics, international trade, and human rights. Yet, TOC unquestionably occupies a niche within the domain of IR and should...

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European Arrest Warrant: Implications for EU Counterterrorism Efforts

  • Oldrich Bures
This article provides an analysis of the introduction, implementation and implications of the European Arrest Warrant (EAW) for the European Union (EU) counterterrorism efforts. In addition, it demonstrates that EAW represents the only major practical application of mutual recognition in EU’s Justice...

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Securitizing Piracy Off the Coast of Somalia

  • Bilyana Tsvetkova
Piracy off the coast of the failed state of Somalia has been growing at an alarming rate. Last year (2008), over 120 attacks have been reported, resulting in the seizure of more than 40 ships and the kidnapping of more than 600 crew members, and about $30 million (USD) in ransom has been paid. Somali...

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The Gulen Movement: An Islamic Response to Terror as a Global Challenge

  • Ibrahim A. El-Hussari
Whilst globalization seems to be winning the battle against both modern and traditional movements which were, until fairly recently, quite active on both the national and the regional levels, it is doubtful that the challenges brought about by globalization can be easily met by some of the world’s stronger...

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Bush, Clausewitz, and Grand Strategic Imperatives: Keeping Political Ends Primary

  • Bryan Groves
As former President George W. Bush relinquished the reigns as Command¬er-in-Chief to President Barak Obama, it is fitting to reflect on how the US will remember Bush in years to come. Whether or not one agrees with his decision to commit U.S. forces to military action against Saddam Hussein and his Ba’ath...

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