National defense can be defined as any effort to defend the country's sovereignty, territorial integrity and security from threats and harassment. Ideally, the fulfillment of defense equipment for strengthening the country's defense makes use of domestic production. In general, the current Indonesian defense industry particularly Aerospace Defense is not independent yet. The fact that the fulfillment of defense equipment has been mostly from imported products results from a lack of implementation of research and development. On the other hand, the implementation of the research and development of the defense industry cannot be separated from the role of the three pillars, i.e., the government, universities, and industries. This paper discusses the triple helix concept of the three pillars in the defense industry that could present both obstacles and chances to the Indonesian defense system particularly in relation to development and adaptation capability of the Indonesian defense industries.


Achmad Sugiono is a postgraduate student at the Department of Political Science, Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia.

Akim and Rizki Ananda Ramadhan are affiliated to the Department of International Relations, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia.