The enactment of state defense awareness (bela negara) is a systematic and structured effort carried out by the state or non-state actors in mobilizing citizen patriotism in order to strengthen national defense. The endeavor is crucial mainly in countries with limited military infrastructure. This study analyzes the enactment of state defense awareness initiated by military agencies in the civil realm through the territorial defense empowerment. This study was conducted at the Adi Sumarmo Air Force Base, Surakarta, Indonesia. This research found that the Indonesian Air Force's defense program involving the civil was carried out not only actively, but also passively. Actively, the Indonesian Air Force Base carries out the obligation of socialization and training in state defense to civilians. On the other hand, government agencies, and civil society ask for assistance to the Indonesian Air Force Base to provide training in state defense in order to shape the character of personnel both for institutional interests and for carrying out citizenship demands. The implementation of the state defense agenda is part of the working agenda of the doctrine of territorial defense empowerment in Indonesia.


Eko Septiawan is affiliated to the Security Studies Program, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia.

Ari Ganjar Herdiansyah is affiliated to the Department of Political Science, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia.

Windy Dermawan is affiliated to the Department of International Relation, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia.